After the stress of being expelled from Millport into the snow, Milford Donaho's wife gave birth prematurely, and the child was severely injured during the birth. Public opinion has recoiled from a summary and forcible removal of our negro population;—much more likely will it be to revolt at the violent expulsion of two or three thousand souls, who have so many ties to connect them with us in a common brotherhood. [40][41] The militia promptly arrested Smith and the other leaders. In an effort to keep the peace, Alexander William Doniphan of Clay County pushed a law through the Missouri legislature that created Caldwell County, Missouri specifically for Mormon settlement in 1836. Most refugees made their way east to Illinois, where residents of the town of Quincy helped them. Phelps claims that he did not take active part in the battle, and that he knew of the Danites. In 1836, the state created Caldwell County exclusively for Mormon settlement, and opponents of the Church objected to any Latter-day Saint settlement outside this new county. Ebenezer Robinson described the scene at Far West, "General Clark made the following speech to the brethren on the public square:...'The orders of the governor to me were, that you should be exterminated, and not allowed to remain in the state, and had your leaders not been given up, and the terms of the treaty complied with, before this, you and your families would have been destroyed and your houses in ashes.'"[90]. [4] An unknown number of non-combatants died due to exposure and hardship as a result of being expelled from their homes in Missouri.[5]. Despite an attempt by the Mormons to parley, the mob attacked. [59], Many Latter Day Saints were greatly troubled by the occurrences. 11/12/1838. Grow, and Matthew C. Godfrey (Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2017), xix–xxix. [99], Smith and the other Mormons resettled in Nauvoo, Illinois, beginning in 1839. Conflict between Mormons and non-Mormons in Missouri from August to November 1838, the first of the three "Mormon Wars". On July 30, citizens of Carroll County met in Carrollton to discuss the Mormon colonization of De Witt. The conflict was preceded by the eviction of the Mormons from Jackson County, Missouri, in 1833. Lucas tried Joseph Smith Jr. and other Mormon leaders by court martial on November 1, the evening of the surrender. [91] Brigham Young recounts that, once the militia was disarmed, Lucas's men were turned loose on the city: [T]hey commenced their ravages by plundering the citizens of their bedding, clothing, money, wearing apparel, and every thing of value they could lay their hands upon, and also attempting to violate the chastity of the women in sight of their husbands and friends, under the pretence of hunting for prisoners and arms. Several children also became ill during the ordeal and died later. Even people who otherwise would have had no sympathy for the Mormons were appalled by Boggs' Executive Order and the treatment of the Mormons by the mobs. Try. They believed that the Indians were descendants of Israelites, and proselytized among them extensively. Witness Maurice Phelps, a Mormon who was present at Crooked River Battle. Author Brandon Kinney talks about his book, [The Mormon War: Zion and the Missouri Extermination Order of 1838]. Once there, they swore out affidavits concerning the burning and looting in Daviess County. Although Mormons won the battle, they took heavier casualties than the Missourians. The governor of Missouri, Lilburn W. Boggs, responded to a plea for help by saying the Saints and the Missourians must fight their own battles. With one child in each arm, she waded across an icy creek to safety in Adam-ondi-Ahman. -- We give a large portion of our paper to-day to the contents of an extra, issued at the request of the Governor, by the Missouri Watchman, containing the evidence on which he has ordered out the troops. 24. John Whitmer recounts that Smith bribed the guards. Exaggerated initial reports indicated that nearly all of Bogart's company had been killed. Their economic cohesion allowed the Mormons to dominate local economies. Of the Missourians, only one, Moses Rowland, was killed. [56], Local citizens were outraged by the actions of the Danites and other Mormon bands. Agnes Smith, a sister-in-law of Joseph, was chased from her home with two small children when her home was burned. King, judge of the Fifth judicial circuit of the state of Missouri, at the Court-house in Richmond, in a criminal court of inquiry, begun November 12, 1838, on the trial of Joseph Smith, Jr., and others, for high treason and other crimes against the state. DeVoto, Bernard (2000). At the start of the brawl, Mormon John Butler let out a call, "Oh yes, you Danites, here is a job for us!" Robinson, Ebenezer. [1][96] The court of inquiry began November 12, 1838. With peace restored, Smith's group returned to Caldwell County. Joseph Smith, returning to Far West from De Witt, was informed by General Doniphan of the deteriorating situation. The 1838 Mormon War was a conflict that occurred between the Mormonand non-Mormon settlers in Missourifrom August to November 1838. A war broke out between the non-Mormon citizens and their LDS counterparts on 6 August, 1838 during the Gallatin, Missouri election and the clashes between both parties continued till the 1 st November of the same year when the Mormons eventually surrendered to the state. In this major new interpretation of those events, LeSueur argues that while a number of prejudices and fears stimulated … [25][26], At the same time Mormons, including Sampson Avard, began to organize a secret society known as the Danites, whose purposes included obeying the church presidency "right or wrong" and expelling the dissenters from Caldwell County. Although difficult, the prison ordeal proved redemptive to Joseph, as profound revelations were given to him during his incarceration.10. McBrier's house was among those burned. Prime Cart. [1] Latter Day Saint refugees began to flee to Adam-ondi-Ahman for protection and shelter against the upcoming winter. In October 1833, anti-Mormon mobs drove the Mormons from Jackson County, Missouri.[13]. [63] (affidavit). Possibly playing on Rigdon's July 4 sermon that talked of a "war of extermination," Boggs issued Missouri Executive Order 44, also known as the "Extermination Order," which stated that "the Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the State if necessary for the public peace..."[71] The Extermination Order was finally rescinded on June 25, 1976 by Governor Christopher Samuel "Kit" Bond.[72][73]. After the inquiry, all but a few of the Mormon prisoners were released, but Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Lyman Wight, Caleb Baldwin, Hyrum Smith and Alexander McRae were held in the Liberty Jail in Liberty, Clay County on charges of treason against the state, murder, arson, burglary, robbery and larceny. When faced with the Mormon refugees from Missouri, the people of Quincy, Illinois, were outraged by the treatment the Mormons had experienced. Sheriff Morgan was ridden through town on an iron bar, and died shortly afterward from the injuries he suffered during the ride. The Mormons' economic cohesion allowed for them to dominate the local economy and also became a large … As reports of mobs burning Mormon homes in other counties mounted, the Saints decided to fight back. But a diplomatic resolution was interrupted when a mob destroyed a Mormon settlement at De Witt, Carroll County, forcing the Saints there to flee for their lives. On June 19, the dissenters and their families fled to neighboring counties where their complaints fanned anti-Mormon sentiment. The Missourians and their families, outnumbered by the Mormons, made their way to neighboring counties. Black refused, but after meeting with Smith, he wrote and signed a document stating that he "is not attached to any mob, nor will attach himself to any such people, and so long as they [the Mormons] will not molest me, I will not molest them. The conflict continued until early November, when the outnumbered Mormons surrendered and agreed to leave the state. American Legal and Political Institutions, Christian Churches in Joseph Smith’s Day, Daily Life of First-Generation Latter-day Saints, Joseph Smith’s 1844 Campaign for United States President, Lectures on Theology (“Lectures on Faith”), Martin Harris’s Consultations with Scholars, Printing and Publishing the Book of Mormon, Religious Beliefs in Joseph Smith’s Day, Restoration of the Melchizedek Priesthood, Temple Dedications and Dedicatory Prayers, “Mormon-Missouri War of 1838,” Church History Topics. , replying: it is unlikely the attackers were aware of Governor Boggs’s order at the age of 12.... Could assure their safety a grand jury on misdemeanor charges, two Mormon were! Harassed and attacked by angry residents who were hiding in the shooting King and General Parks for assistance when outnumbered... And robbers ” and warned them not to vote into Missouri. 36... 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