The West as a geographical area is unclear and undefined.  Tragedy, from its ritually and mythologically inspired Greek origins to modern forms where struggle and downfall are often rooted in psychological or social, rather than mythical, motives, is also widely considered a specifically European creation and can be seen as a forerunner of some aspects of both the novel and of classical opera. Many parts of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire are considered Western today but were considered Eastern in the past. As in its artistic tradition, European literature pays deep tribute to human suffering. Eyeglasses, the telescope, the microscope and electron microscope, all the varieties of chromatography, protein and DNA sequencing, computerised tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-rays, and light, ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy, were all first developed and applied in Western laboratories, hospitals and factories. With the exception of Italia, the wealthiest provinces of the Roman Empire were in the East, particularly Roman Egypt which was the wealthiest Roman province outside of Italia. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. The Medieval West referred specifically to the Catholic "Latin" West, also called "Frankish" during Charlemagne's reign, in contrast to the Orthodox East, where Greek remained the language of the Byzantine Empire. During the 20th century, there was a significant decline in Christian influence among most of the Western countries, particularly in the European Union. , By the will of the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel the Nobel Prize were established in 1895. From the late 15th century to the 17th century, Western culture began to spread to other parts of the world through explorers and missionaries during the Age of Discovery, and by imperialists from the 17th century to the early 20th century. The concept of Western culture is generally linked to the classical definition of the Western world. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. Comple ... the Western culture and European mode of civilization began to thrive and outgrow African cultural heritage. Many parts of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empireare considered Western today but were considered Eastern in the past. The sport of bullfighting is a traditional spectacle of Spain, Portugal, southern France, and some Latin American countries. Norms, values and political systems originating in Europe, Scientific and technological inventions and discoveries, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Western cultures synonyms, Western cultures pronunciation, Western cultures translation, English dictionary definition of Western cultures. Culture definition is - the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group; also : the characteristic features of everyday existence (such as diversions or a way of life) shared by people in a place or time. Western music, music produced in Europe as well as those musics derived from the European from ancient times to the present day. Westernization reached much of the world as part of the process of colonialism and continues to be a significant cultural phenomenon as a result of globalization.  These transitions began in Great Britain, and spread to Western Europe and North America within a few decades.. Non-European groups, and Jews in particular, have been subjected to intense racism, ethnic and religious hatred, xenophobia, discrimination, and persecution in the West. , In the 20th century, Christianity declined in influence in many Western countries, mostly in the European Union where some member states have experienced falling church attendance and membership in recent years, and also elsewhere. Sailen Debnath, 2010, "Secularism: Western and Indian," New Delhi, India:Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, Gordon, Cyrus H., The Common Background of the Greek and Hebrew Civilizations, W. W. Norton and Company, New York 1965, "How The Irish Saved Civilisation", by Thomas Cahill, 1995, Sootin, Harry. Likewise, Wicca, New Age spirituality and other neo-pagan belief systems enjoy notable minority support in Western states. Iron and steel ships, bridges and skyscrapers first appeared in the West. , In mathematics, calculus, statistics, logic, vectors, tensors and complex analysis, group theory and topology were developed by Westerners. Mainly based on Christianity, one sees oneself as an element of the divine and life in service of … Christianity remains the dominant religion in the Western world, where 70% are Christians.. America, for example, is firmly Western in culture. Musical theatre was developed in the West in the 19th and 20th Centuries, from music hall, comic opera, and Vaudeville; with significant contributions from the Jewish diaspora, African-Americans, and other marginalized peoples..  The globalization by successive European colonial empires spread European ways of life and European educational methods around the world between the 16th and 20th centuries. After the fall of Rome, much of Greco-Roman art, literature, science and even technology were all but lost in the western part of the old empire. Becoming USDA licensed in 2018. Its influence is found in all Western legal systems, although in different manners and to different extents.  Thus, the culture identified with East and West itself interchanges with time and place (from the ancient world to the modern). Thus, much of the learning of classical antiquity was slowly reintroduced to European civilization in the centuries following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. The bat and ball sport of cricket was first played in England during the 16th century and was exported around the globe via the British Empire. The universe of values, customs, practices, traditions, religious beliefs, economic system and political-social organization representative of Western Europe and Europe is known as Western culture from the west , either because they originated there, or because they were assumed as their own. The names of western society, western civilization, European civilization and Christian civilization with the same meaning are also used. Western culture refers to the culture of any country that is part of "the western world", and such a country is a country that has a European heritage/history with the original core … However, per another survey by Pew Research Center from 2011, Christianity remains the dominant religion in the Western world where 70–84% are Christians, According to this survey, 76% of Europeans described themselves as Christians, and about 86% of the Americas population identified themselves as Christians, (90% in Latin America and 77% in North America). Rüegg, Walter: "Foreword. European art pays deep tribute to human suffering.. The Olympic Games revived many of the sports of Classical Antiquity—such as Greco-Roman wrestling, discus and javelin. The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. Greek and Roman theatre are considered the antecedents of modern theatre, and forms such as medieval theatre, passion plays, morality plays, and commedia dell'arte are considered highly influential.  Nevertheless, the Celts in the West created some significant literature in the ancient world whenever they were given the opportunity (an example being the poet Caecilius Statius), and they developed a large amount of scientific knowledge themselves (as seen in their Coligny Calendar). All these notions are now under revision and discussion, especially since the processes began of decolonization of the world. Coming into the modern era, the historical understanding of the East–West contrast—as the opposition of Christendom to its geographical neighbors—began to weaken.  Christianity played a role in ending practices common among pagan societies, such as human sacrifice, slavery, infanticide and polygamy.  The ballroom dance is an important Western variety of dance for the elite. Under the Frankish kings, it eventually, and partially, reunified, and the anarchy evolved into feudalism. The eradication of smallpox, was led by a Westerner, Donald Henderson. That the earliest writers explained it … What is thought of as Western thought today originates primarily from Greco-Roman and Germanic influences, and includes the ideals of the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and the Enlightenment, as well as Christian culture. During the Reformation and Enlightenment, the ideas of civil rights, equality before the law, procedural justice, and democracy as the ideal form of society began to be institutionalized as principles forming the basis of modern Western culture, particularly in Protestant regions. Permane nte reference to the culture of Greek antiquity, with emphasis on rational thinking (philosophy, literature, science, politics and art); Military and administrative civil inheritance of the Roman Empire, with emphasis on Roman law ; Christian religion (Catholic and Protestant); The set of values and customs provided by Celts, Germans and Slavs; The claim to universality in name of the cultural heritage; The modern development of the national State and capitalism (a phenomenon that occurred in the last two centuries). The novel, which made its appearance in the 18th century, is an essentially European creation.  GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy, while the Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies.  In 1054 came the Great Schism that, following the Greek East and Latin West divide, separated Europe into religious and cultural regions present to this day. Jose Orlandis, 1993, "A Short History of the Catholic Church," 2nd edn. In physics, the science of mechanics and quantum mechanics, relativity, thermodynamics, and statistical mechanics were all developed by Westerners. In music, Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern Western musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church, and an enormous body of religious music has been composed for it through the ages. »Its Definition and Meaning , Definition of protusion - What it is, Meaning and Concept, Meaning of Convergent (What is, Concept and Definition), Meaning of Nutriologist (What is it, Concept and Definition), Meaning of greenhouse effect (What is it, Concept and Definition), Definition of polifacetic - What is it, Meaning and Concept.  A cornerstone of Western thought, beginning in ancient Greece and continuing through the Middle Ages and Renaissance, is the idea of rationalism in various spheres of life developed by Hellenistic philosophy, scholasticism and humanism. The first expedition to circumnavigate the Earth (1522) was by Westerners, as well as the first journey to the South Pole (1911), and the first Moon landing (1969).  Greeks felt they were the most civilized and saw themselves (in the formulation of Aristotle) as something between the advanced civilizations of the Near East (who they viewed as soft and slavish) and the wild barbarians of most of Europe to the west. Roman culture also mixed with Celtic, Germanic, and Slavic cultures, which slowly became integrated into Western culture: starting mainly with their acceptance of Christianity. Radiography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and medical ultrasonography are important diagnostic tools developed in the West.  The concept of a "West" dates back to the Roman Empire, where there was a cultural divide between the Greek East and Latin West, a divide that later continued in Medieval Europe between the Catholic Latin Church west and the "Greek" Eastern Orthodox east. The polka, the square dance, the flamenco, and the Irish step dance are very well known Western forms of folk dance. Throughout the Western world there are increasing numbers of people who seek to revive the indigenous religions of their European ancestors; such groups include Germanic, Roman, Hellenic, Celtic, Slavic, and polytheistic reconstructionist movements. When people talk about Western culture, what exactly are they referring to?  However, due to the division in Western Christianity caused by the Protestant Reformation and the Enlightenment, religious influence—especially the temporal power of the Pope—began to wane.. The East Coast of the United States was originally a British colony, and as Americ… At the same time, then as the printing press in the physical technological sense was invented, 'the press' in the extended sense of the word also entered the historical stage. to 1950, Paperback – 9 November 2004, p. 252, Tom McInally, The Sixth Scottish University. Of course, extended prose fiction had existed much earlier; both novels of adventure and romance in the Hellenistic world and in Heian Japan.  These cultures had a number of similarities, such as a common emphasis on the individual, but they also embody fundamentally conflicting worldviews. , Communication devices and systems including the telegraph, the telephone, radio, television, communications and navigation satellites, mobile phone, and the Internet were all invented by Westerners. Most of the elements were discovered and named in the West, as well as the contemporary atomic theories to explain them. It traces its roots to prehistoric bull worship and sacrifice and is often linked to Rome, where many human-versus-animal events were held. As religion became less important, and Europeans came into increasing contact with far away peoples, the old concept of Western culture began a slow evolution towards what it is today. However, this would become the centre of a new West. Western religions believe in the superiority of human beings over other animals and here too people can become better if they control their sinful actions and thoughts , The roots of modern-day Western mass media can be traced back to the late 15th century, when printing presses began to operate throughout wealthy European cities. The cultural definition of the Western world. Western culture has been heavily influenced by the Renaissance, the Ages of Discovery and Enlightenment and the Industrial and Scientific Revolutions. While epic literary works in verse such as the Mahabharata and Homer's Iliad are ancient and occurred worldwide, the prose novel as a distinct form of storytelling, with developed, consistent human characters and, typically, some connected overall plot (although both of these characteristics have sometimes been modified and played with in later times), was popularized by the West in the 17th and 18th centuries. The Jewish Christian tradition out of which it had emerged was all but extinguished, and antisemitism became increasingly entrenched or even integral to Christendom. ", "There Is No Such Thing As Western Civilization", "A Philosophical and Historical Analysis of Modern Democracy, Equality, and Freedom Under the Influence of Christianity", "Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution", "Review of The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain (edited by Roderick Floud and Paul Johnson), Times Higher Education Supplement, 15 January 2004", http://www.canterbury.ac.nz/graduation/grad-history.shtml, "IPTO – Information Processing Techniques Office", https://books.google.com/books?id=FAHk65slfY4C&pg=PA16, An enormous theorem: the classification of finite simple groups, "Five Hundred Years of Bookkeeping: A Portrait of Luca Pacioli", "The End of an Asteroidal Adventure: NEAR Shoemaker Phones Home for the Last Time", "15-149 NASA's Three-Billion-Mile Journey to Pluto Reaches Historic Encounter", Catholicisme et protestantisme en France: Analyses sociologiques et données de l'Institut CSA pour La Croix, "International Religious Freedom Report 2007", The Rise of Western Power: A Comparative History of Western Civilization, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Western_culture&oldid=1000886235, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from February 2015, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles needing additional references from November 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2017, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Greco-Roman classic letters, arts, architecture, philosophical and cultural tradition, which include the influence of preeminent authors and philosophers such as, More pronounced use and application of innovation and scientific developments, as well as a more rational approach to scientific progress (what has been known as the, This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 06:10. The predecessor of the skyscraper can be found in the medieval towers erected in Bologna.  Movements in art and philosophy, such as the Humanist movement of the Renaissance and the Scholastic movement of the High Middle Ages, were motivated by a drive to connect Catholicism with Greek and Arab thought imported by Christian pilgrims. , Westerners are also known for their explorations of the globe and outer space. Publications include Encyclopédie (1751–72) that was edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. 08. In Western dance, music, plays and other arts, the performers are only very infrequently masked. They are committed to producing the highest quality goat cheese from ther small sustainable farm on the western slope of Colorado. Various uses of the con… Upon learning about enlightened views, some rulers met with intellectuals and tried to apply their reforms, such as allowing for toleration, or accepting multiple religions, in what became known as enlightened absolutism. Western culture.  These hospitals were established to cater to "particular social groups marginalized by poverty, sickness, and age," according to the historian of hospitals, Guenter Risse. Constantinople and the West: essays on the late Byzantine (Palaeologan) and Italian Renaissances and the Byzantine and Roman churches. By the mid-20th century, Western culture was exported worldwide, and the development and growth of international transport and telecommunication (such as transatlantic cable and the radiotelephone) played a decisive role in modern globalization. Dance forms. Western culture is most strongly influenced by the Greco-Roman and Christian cultures..  The rise of Christianity reshaped much of the Greco-Roman tradition and culture; the Christianised culture would be the basis for the development of Western civilization after the fall of Rome (which resulted from increasing pressure from barbarians outside Roman culture). All ancient civilizations entered historical times with a flourishing musical culture.  The electrical motor, dynamo, transformer, electric light, and most of the familiar electrical appliances, were inventions of the West. Volleyball was created in Holyoke, Massachusetts, a city directly north of Springfield, in 1895. How to use culture in a sentence.  European culture developed with a complex range of philosophy, medieval scholasticism, mysticism and Christian and secular humanism. The First Industrial Revolution evolved into the Second Industrial Revolution in the transition years between 1840 and 1870, when technological and economic progress continued with the increasing adoption of steam transport (steam-powered railways, boats, and ships), the large-scale manufacture of machine tools and the increasing use of machinery in steam-powered factories. Stereotypical views of "the West" have been labeled Occidentalism, paralleling Orientalism—the term for the 19th-century stereotyped views of "the East". The most important Hellenistic centre of learning was Ptolemaic Egypt, which attracted Greek, Egyptian, Jewish, Persian, Phoenician and even Indian scholars. In that sense, it has been denounced that one of The characteristics of Western culture is its ethnocentric character, a paradigm that they specifically call eurocentrism. Sports became such a prominent part of their culture that the Greeks created the Olympic Games, which in ancient times were held every four years in a small village in the Peloponnesus called Olympia. Philosophers of the Enlightenment included Francis Bacon, René Descartes, John Locke, Baruch Spinoza, Voltaire (1694–1778), David Hume, and Immanuel Kant. Western culture explanation. The scientific method as "a method or procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses" was fashioned by the 17th-century Italian Galileo Galilei, with roots in the work of medieval scholars such as the 11th-century Iraqi physicist Ibn al-Haytham and the 13th-century English friar Roger Bacon. Western culture is a term that refers to the heritage of ethical values, traditions, customs, belief systems, technologies, and artefacts that define the lifestyles and beliefs of people from the Western part of the world. During the Great Divergence, a term coined by Samuel Huntington the Western world overcame pre-modern growth constraints and emerged during the 19th century as the most powerful and wealthy world civilization of the time, eclipsing Qing China, Mughal India, Tokugawa Japan, and the Ottoman Empire. Indeed, western culture is a societal matter that only affects the living conditions of the people in the region.  The pencil, ballpoint pen, Cathode ray tube, liquid-crystal display, light-emitting diode, camera, photocopier, laser printer, ink jet printer, plasma display screen and world wide web were also invented in the West. So were the stethoscope, the electrocardiograph, and the endoscope. Western cultureis an incredibly broad term used to describe the social norms, belief systems, traditions, customs, values, and so forth that have their origin in Europe or are based on European culture. Departing from media offered in bundled content packages (magazines, CDs, television and radio slots), the Internet has primarily offered unbundled content items (articles, audio and video files).. Christian attempts to reconcile these frameworks were responsible for the preservation of Greek philosophy.  This has included pogroms, forced conversion, displacement, segregation and ghettos, ethnic cleansing, genocide, and other forms of violence and prejudice.. The roots of the Western culture has its origins in Europe and carries a heritage of Germanic, Celtic, Hellenic, Slavic, Jewish, Latin, and other ethnic and linguistic groups. The process was accompanied and reinforced by the Age of Discovery and continued into the modern period. , Beginning in the 1990s, the Internet has contributed to a tremendous increase in the accessibility of Western media content. The expansion of Greek culture into the Hellenistic world of the eastern Mediterranean led to a synthesis between Greek and Near-Eastern cultures, and major advances in literature, engineering, and science, and provided the culture for the expansion of early Christianity and the Greek New Testament. a: steeped in or stemming from the Greco-Roman traditions Western culture b : of or relating to the noncommunist countries of Europe and America Western powers Scholars have proposed a wide variety of theories to explain why the Great Divergence happened, including lack of government intervention, geography, colonialism, and customary traditions. The soap opera, a popular culture dramatic form, originated in the United States first on radio in the 1930s, then a couple of decades later on television. , In the 16th century, a decrease in the preeminence of Latin in its literary use, along with the impact of economic change, the discoveries arising from trade and travel, navigation to the new world, science and arts and the development of increasingly rapid communications through print led to a rising corpus of vernacular media content in European society. If they are angry, they might express. Since classical antiquity, sport has been an important facet of Western cultural expression. Football(also known as soccer) remains hugely popular in Europe, but has grown from its origins to be known as the world game.  Medieval Christianity is credited with creating the modern university, the modern hospital system, scientific economics, and natural law (which would later influence the creation of international law).  In biology, evolution, chromosomes, DNA, genetics and the methods of molecular biology are creations of the West. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are some of the most common religions practiced in the Western world.People in the west are more open-minded than those in the east. Culture is a term that refers to a large and diverse set of mostly intangible aspects of social life. Western civilization, western culture or the West is made up of European culturally derived societies (most notably in the Classical Roman heritage,Western Christianity (Catholicism and Protestantism), Democracy and Liberalism).This at least includes Western and Central Europe, English speaking North America, Australia and New Zealand.The identities of places such as … Chinese and Japanese literature contain some works that may be thought of as novels, but only the European novel is couched in terms of a personal analysis of personal dilemmas.. 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